The Orchidaceae area unit a various and widespread family of flowering plants with colourful and odorous blooms, ordinarily referred to as the monocot family. along side the family Asteraceae, they’re one in all the 2 largest families of flowering plants, with between twenty one,950 and 26,049 presently accepted species, found in 880 genera.choosing that of the 2 families is larger remains underneath dialogue, as concrete numbers on such monumental families area unit perpetually in flux. Regardless, the quantity of orchidaceous plant species equals over doubly the quantity of bird species, and concerning fourfold the quantity of craniate species. The family conjointly encompasses concerning 6–11% of all seed plants.the biggest genera area unit Bulbophyllum (2,000 species), liliopsid genus (1,500 species), orchid (1,400 species) and orchid (1,000 species).
The family conjointly includes Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant), Orchis (type genus), and lots of ordinarily cultivated plants like genus Phalaenopsis and orchidaceous plant. Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species within the nineteenth century, horticulturists have created over one hundred,000 hybrids and cultivars.
The name comes from the Greek ὄρχις (órkhis), virtually that means “testicle”, thanks to the form of the foundation. Linnaeus classified the family as liliopsid family. flower was introduced in 1845 by John Lindley at school biological science, owing to Associate in Nursing incorrect commit to extract the Latin stem (orchis) from liliopsid family.
The Greek story of Orchis explains the origin of the plants. Orchis, the son of a nymph and a satyr, came across a pageant of Dionysios (Bacchus) within the forest. He drank an excessive amount of, and tried to rape a priest of Dionysios. For his insult, he was torn apart by the Bacchanalians. His father prayed for him to be repaired, however the gods instead modified him into a flower.
These flowers were antecedently known as Orchis, Satyrion (Satyrion feminina), or “ballockwort”.
A majority of orchids ar perennial epiphytes, that grow anchored to trees or shrubs within the tropics and semitropics. Species like Angraecum sororium ar lithophytes,growing on rocks or terribly rocky soil. different orchids (including the bulk of temperate Orchidaceae) ar terrestrial and might be found in environment areas like grasslands or forest.
Some orchids, like Neottia and liliopsid genus, lack pigment, thus ar unable to photosynthesize. Instead, these species acquire energy and nutrients by parasitising soil fungi through the formation of orchidaceous plant mycorrhizas. The fungi concerned embrace people who type ectomycorrhizas with trees and different woody plants, parasites like genus Armillaria, and saprotrophs.These orchids ar referred to as myco-heterotrophs, however were erstwhile (incorrectly) represented as saprophytes because of the idea that they gained their nutrition by breaking down organic matter. whereas solely many species ar achlorophyllous holoparasites, all orchids ar myco-heterotrophic throughout germination and phanerogam growth, and even chemical change adult plants might still acquire carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi.