Tower Bridge (built 1886–1894) may be a combined construction and bridge in London, over the Thames River. it’s near the Tower of London, from that it takes its name.it’s become Associate in Nursing picture image of London.
Tower Bridge ,,,
The bridge consists of 2 towers tied along at the higher level by means that of 2 horizontal walkways, designed to face up to the horizontal forces exerted by the suspended sections of the bridge on the landwards sides of the towers. The vertical element of the forces within the suspended sections and also the vertical reactions of the 2 walkways area unit carried by the 2 strong towers. The structure pivots and in operation machinery area unit housed within the base of every tower. The bridge’s gift combination dates from 1977, once it had been painted red, white and blue for the Queen Elizabeth II’s jubilee. Originally it had been painted a middle greenish-blue color.
Tower Bridge is usually erroneously cited as London Bridge, that is that the next bridge upstream.
The nearest London Underground station is Tower Hill on the Circle and District lines, and also the nearest Docklands lightweight railroad terminal is Tower entry .
In the half of the nineteenth century, enhanced business development within the East finish of London junction rectifier to a demand for a brand new stream crossing downstream of London Bridge. a conventional fastened bridge couldn’t be designed as a result of it’d interrupt access by tall-masted ships to the port facilities within the Pool of London, between London Bridge and also the Tower of London.
A Special Bridge or Subway Committee was fashioned in 1876, chaired by Sir Prince Albert Joseph Altman, to search out an answer to the stream crossing drawback. It opened the look of the crossing to public competition. Over fifty styles were submitted, as well as one from engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette. The analysis of the styles was encircled by contention, and it had been not till 1884 that a style submitted by Sir Horace Jones, town designer (who was conjointly one in every of the judges), was approved.
Jones’ engineer, Sir John Wolfe Barry, devised the thought of a structure bridge with 2 towers designed on piers. The central span was split into 2 equal bascules or leaves, that may well be raised to permit stream traffic to pass. the 2 side-spans were suspension bridges, with the suspension rods anchored each at the abutments and thru rods contained among the bridge’s higher walkways.
Construction started in 1886 and took eight years with 5 major contractors – Sir John Jackson (foundations), Baron Armstrong (hydraulics), William Webster, Sir H.H. Bartlett, and Sir William Arrol & Co. – and utilized 432 construction employees. E W Crutwell was the resident engineer for the development.
Two huge piers, containing over seventy,000 heaps of concrete, were undone into the bed to support the development. Over 11,000 heaps of steel provided the framework for the towers and walkways.This was then clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone, each to guard the underlying steelwork and to convey the bridge a satisfying look.
Jones died in 1887 and St. George D. Stevenson took over the project. Stevenson replaced Jones’s original brick façade with the a lot of ornate Victorian Gothic vogue, that makes the bridge a particular landmark, and was meant to harmonise the bridge with the close Tower of London.The total value of construction was £1,184,000(£100 million as of 2012).
The bridge was formally opened on thirty Gregorian calendar month 1894 by The patrician of Wales (the future King Edward VII), and his married woman, The aristocrat of Wales (Alexandra of Denmark).
The bridge connected Iron Gate, on the north bank of the stream, with Horselydown Lane, on the south – currently referred to as Tower Bridge Approach and Tower Bridge Road, severally.till the bridge was opened, the Tower Subway – four hundred m to the west – was the shortest thanks to cross the stream from Tower Hill to Tooley Street in Southwark. Opened in 1870, Tower Subway was the world’s initial underground (‘tube’) railway, however closed once simply 3 months and was re-opened as a pedestrian foot tunnel. Once Tower Bridge was open, the bulk of traffic transferred to victimization the bridge, there being no toll to pay to use it. Having lost most of its financial gain, the tunnel was enclosed 1898.
Tower Bridge is one in all 5 London bridges currently closely-held and maintained by the Bridge House Estates, a public trust overseen by the town of London Corporation. it’s the sole one in all the Trust’s bridges to not connect the town of London to the Southwark bank, the northern landfall being in Tower Hamlets.
The bridge is 800 feet (244 m) long with 2 towers every 213 feet (65 m) high, engineered on piers. The central span of two hundred feet (61 m) between the towers is split into 2 equal bascules or leaves, which might be raised to associate angle of eighty six degrees to permit stream traffic to pass. The bascules, consideration over one,000 tons every, square measure counterpoised to minimise the force needed and permit raising in 5 minutes. The two side-spans square measure suspension bridges, every 270 feet (82 m) long, with the suspension rods anchored each at the abutments and thru rods contained inside the bridge’s higher walkways. The pedestrian walkways square measure 143 feet (44 m) on top of the stream at high water.
Tower Bridge Exhibition and the tower walkways :
The high-level out-of-doors walkways between the towers gained associate degree unpleasant name as a haunt for prostitutes and pickpockets; as they were solely accessible by stairs they were rarely employed by regular pedestrians, and were enclosed 1910. In 1982 they were reopened as a part of the Tower Bridge Exhibition, a show housed within the bridge’s WTC, the high-level walkways and also the Victorian engine rooms. The exhibition charges associate degree price of admission. It uses films, photos and interactive displays to elucidate why and the way Tower Bridge was designed. guests will access the first steam engines that when power-driven the bridge bascules, housed in a very building near the south finish of the bridge.